After the rise of commercial game publishing in the late 19th century, many games which had formerly evolved via folk processes became commercial properties, often with custom scoring pads or preprepared material. Inexpensive (hollow) lead figurine casting contributed to the development of miniature wargaming. Smart phones have led to a proliferation of mobile games. The first games in a new medium are frequently adaptations of older games. Pong , one of the first widely disseminated video games, adapted table tennis. Prior to the late-twentieth century, the academic study of games was rare and limited to fields such as history and anthropology. The games studied in game theory are well-defined mathematical objects. These equilibrium strategies determine an equilibrium to the game—a stable state in which either one outcome occurs or a set of outcomes occur with known probability. Many game tools are tokens, meant to represent other things. A token may be a pawn on a board, play money , or an intangible item such as a point scored. Games such as hide-and-seek or tag do not utilise any obvious tool; rather, their interactivity is defined by the environment. Games with the same or similar rules may have different gameplay if the environment is altered. For example, hide-and-seek in a school building differs from the same game in a park; an auto race can be radically different depending on the track or street course, even with the same cars. While rules are subject to variations and changes , enough change in the rules usually results in a “new” game. There are exceptions to this in that some games deliberately involve the changing of their own rules, but even then there are often immutable meta -rules. Rules generally determine turn order, the rights and responsibilities of the players, each player’s goals, and how game components interact with each other in to produce changes in a game’s state. Player rights may include when they may spend resources or move tokens. Single-player games are unique in respect to the type of challenges a player faces. This is also true of cooperative games , in which multiple players share a common goal and win or lose together. Many games described as “single-player” or “cooperative” could alternatively be described as puzzles or recreations, in that they do not involve strategic behavior (as defined by game theory), in which the expected reaction of an opponent to a possible move becomes a factor in choosing which move to make.   Games against opponents simulated with artificial intelligence differ from other single-player games in that the algorithms used usually do incorporate strategic behavior. Narrative plots in games generally have a clearly defined and simplistic structure. Because of this, most narrative elements in games are created unconsciously and intuitively. However, as a general rule, game narratives increase in complexity and scale as player choice or game mechanics increase in complexity and scale. One example of this is removing a players ability to directly affect the plot for a limited time. This lack of player choice necessitates an increase in mechanical complexity, and could be used as a metaphor to symbolize depression that is felt by a character in the narrative. Most games contain two or all three of these elements. Typically, the development process is an iterative process, with repeated phases of testing and revision. A game concept may be “pitched” to a game publisher in a similar manner as film ideas are pitched to potential film producers. The play sequence and possible player actions are defined, as well as how the game starts, ends, and what is its winning condition. In video games, storyboards and screen mockups may be created. Later testing may take place with focus groups to test consumer reactions before publication. The most ancient board games known today are over 5000 years old. Traditional board games date from the nineteenth and early twentieth century. Dice games differ from card games in that each throw of the dice is an independent event , whereas the odds of a given card being drawn is affected by all the previous cards drawn or revealed from a deck. In many instances, for example, character creation is left to the players. There is no central core for tabletop role-playing game theory because different people want such different things out of the games. Theory has been abandoned by its creator, partly because it neglects emotional investment, and partly because it just didn’t work properly. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page. Play, learning and the early childhood curriculum. Sometimes the most addictive new technology comes in a simple cardboard box”. monster high doll house desi