Front-mounted baskets , front or rear luggage carriers or racks, and panniers mounted above either or both wheels can be used to carry equipment or cargo. Toe-clips and toestraps and clipless pedals help keep the foot locked in the proper pedal position and enable cyclists to pull and push the pedals.

Suspension is especially important on recumbent bicycles, since while an upright bicycle rider can stand on the pedals to achieve some of the benefits of suspension, a recumbent rider cannot. Archived from the original on 2011-11-10. Le roman de la bicyclette, du célérifère au vélo moderne. Archived from the original on 2013-01-15.Anthony: including public addresses, her own letters and many from her contemporaries during fifty years. The traffic codes of many countries reflect these definitions and demand that a bicycle satisfy certain legal requirements before it can be used on public roads. Now, almost none of them produce their own frames. They all experience the freedom and the natural opportunity for exercise that the bicycle easily provides. These techniques later enabled skilled metalworkers and mechanics to develop the components used in early automobiles and aircraft. The bicycle, in that sense, can be an important poverty-eradication tool in poor nations.

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What a road does at a macro level to increase transport, the bicycle supports at the micro level. They are the most frequently used method of transport for commuting to work, school, shopping, and life in general. Folding bicycles are useful in these scenarios, as they are less cumbersome when carried aboard. Some students who commute several miles drive a car from home to a campus parking lot, then ride a bicycle to class. There are towns in some countries where bicycle culture has been an integral part of the landscape for generations, even without much official support. In cities where bicycles are not integrated into the public transportation system, commuters often use bicycles as elements of a mixed-mode commute , where the bike is used to travel to and from train stations or other forms of rapid transit. Buses in many cities have bicycle carriers mounted on the front. More specialized bicycle components may require more complex tools, including proprietary tools specific for a given manufacturer. Bicycles allowed people to travel for leisure into the country, since bicycles were three times as energy efficient as walking and three to four times as fast. Full service is available from bicycle mechanics at a local bike shop. Some cyclists choose self-service: they maintain their own bicycles, perhaps as part of their enjoyment of the hobby of cycling or simply for economic reasons. Some bicycle parts, particularly hub-based gearing systems, require considerable torque for dis-assembly and may thus need professional services. The complexity of bicycle tire maintenance and repair may cause many to not consider the bicycle for transport or leisure. Inflation of bicycle tires to pressures higher than typical for automotive use requires special pumps. Thin, light bicycle tires are particularly vulnerable to penetration and subsequent deflation caused by goat’s heads and other burs , colloquially known as stickers. Bicycle helmets can reduce injury in the event of a collision or accident, and a suitable helmet is legally required of riders in many jurisdictions. Bicyclists also have specialized form fitting and high visibility clothing. Training wheels are sometimes used when learning to ride. Kick stands keep bicycles upright when parked, and bike locks deter theft. Mudguards , or fenders , protect the cyclist and moving parts from spray when riding through wet areas and chainguards protect clothes from oil on the chain while preventing clothing from being caught between the chain and crankset teeth. Road bicycles use tires 18 to 25 millimeters wide, most often completely smooth, or slick , and inflated to high pressure in order to roll fast on smooth surfaces. A pair of wheels may be called a wheelset, especially in the context of ready-built “off the shelf”, performance-oriented wheels. Road bicycles tend to have no suspension. Basic mountain bicycles and hybrids usually have front suspension only, whilst more sophisticated ones also have rear suspension.

Bicycle suspensions are used primarily on mountain bicycles, but are also common on hybrid bicycles, as they can help deal with problematic vibration from poor surfaces. This serves two purposes: to keep the wheels in continuous contact with the ground, improving control, and to isolate the rider and luggage from jarring due to rough surfaces, improving comfort. Without a freewheel, coasting is impossible, so when the rear wheel is moving, the cranks are moving. Track riders are still able to slow down because all track bicycles are fixed-gear, meaning that there is no freewheel. Recumbent bicycles may have either under-seat or over-seat steering. Track bicycles do not have brakes, because all riders ride in the same direction around a track which does not necessitate sharp deceleration. Suspension seat posts and seat springs provide comfort by absorbing shock but can add to the overall weight of the bicycle. For racing bikes where the rider is bent over, weight is more evenly distributed between the handlebars and saddle, the hips are flexed, and a narrower and harder saddle is more efficient. With comfort bikes and hybrids, cyclists sit high over the seat, their weight directed down onto the saddle, such that a wider and more cushioned saddle is preferable. Mountain bikes generally feature a ‘straight handlebar’ or ‘riser bar’ with varying degrees of sweep backwards and centimeters rise upwards, as well as wider widths which can provide better handling due to increased leverage against the wheel. The most common options are either a rear hub or multiple chain rings combined with multiple sprockets (other combinations of options are possible but less common).

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A higher gear allows a cyclist to make fewer pedal turns to maintain a given speed, but with more effort per turn of the pedals. With a chain drive transmission, a chainring attached to a crank drives the chain, which in turn rotates the rear wheel via the rear sprocket(s) (cassette or freewheel ). This allows the energy required to move the same distance to be distributed over more pedal turns, reducing fatigue when riding uphill, with a heavy load, or against strong winds. Multi-speed bicycles allow gear selection to suit the circumstances: a cyclist could use a high gear when cycling downhill, a medium gear when cycling on a flat road, and a low gear when cycling uphill. In a lower gear every turn of the pedals leads to fewer rotations of the rear wheel. They can’t be shifted across a cassette of sprockets, and are used either as single speed or with a hub gear. Different gears and ranges of gears are appropriate for different people and styles of cycling. An alternative to chaindrive is to use a synchronous belt.

These are toothed and work much the same as a chain – popular with commuters and long distance cyclists they require little maintenance. In reality, many gears overlap or require the chain to run diagonally, so the number of usable gears is fewer. Most bikes have two or three chainrings, and from 5 to 11 sprockets on the back, with the number of theoretical gears calculated by multiplying front by back. A dérailleur system normally has two dérailleurs, or mechs, one at the front to select the chainring and another at the back to select the sprocket. Since cyclists’ legs are most efficient over a narrow range of pedaling speeds, or cadence , a variable gear ratio helps a cyclist to maintain an optimum pedalling speed while covering varied terrain. Hydraulic bicycle transmissions have been built, but they are currently inefficient and complex. Most bicycles use a chain to transmit power to the rear wheel. A very small number of bicycles use a shaft drive to transmit power, or special belts. Virtually all professional racing bicycles now use carbon fibre frames, as they have the best strength to weight ratio. Other exotic frame materials include titanium and advanced alloys. Since then aluminum alloy frames and other components have become popular due to their light weight, and most mid-range bikes are now principally aluminum alloy of some kind.[where?These practices were akin to the older practice of riding horse sidesaddle. Since the late 1930s alloy steels have been used for frame and fork tubes in higher quality machines. Furthermore, it was considered “unladylike” for women to open their legs to mount and dismount – in more conservative times women who rode bicycles at all were vilified as immoral or immodest. For most of the history of bicycles’ popularity women have worn long skirts, and the lower frame accommodated these better than the top-tube. Because of its persistent image as a “women’s” bicycle, step-through frames are not common for larger frames. Step-throughs were popular partly for practical reasons and partly for social mores of the day.

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The ease of stepping through is also appreciated by those with limited flexibility or other joint problems. While some women’s bicycles continue to use this frame style, there is also a variation, the mixte , which splits the top tube laterally into two thinner top tubes that bypass the seat tube on each side and connect to the rear fork ends. The seat stays connect the top of the seat tube (at or near the same point as the top tube) to the rear fork ends. The chain stays run parallel to the chain , connecting the bottom bracket to the rear dropout , where the axle for the rear wheel is held. The top tube connects the head tube to the seat tube at the top, and the down tube connects the head tube to the bottom bracket. The head tube contains the headset , the set of bearings that allows the fork to turn smoothly for steering and balance. The front triangle consists of the head tube, top tube, down tube, and seat tube. Drag can be reduced by seating the rider in a more aerodynamically streamlined position. Drag can also be reduced by covering the bicycle with an aerodynamic fairing. Air drag, which is proportional to the square of speed, requires dramatically higher power outputs as speeds increase. If the rider is sitting upright, the rider’s body creates about 75% of the total drag of the bicycle/rider combination. In a utilitarian way, bicycles are used for transportation, bicycle commuting , and utility cycling. A human traveling on a bicycle at low to medium speeds of around 16–24 km/h (10–15 mph) uses only the power required to walk.They were popular in a time when there were not cars on the market and the principal mode of transportation was horse-drawn vehicles , such the horse and buggy or the horsecar. Bowden cable -pull brakes were also developed during these years, but were only slowly adopted by casual riders. Having to both pedal and steer via the front wheel remained a problem. These models were known as safety bicycles , dwarf safeties, or upright bicycles for their lower seat height and better weight distribution, although without pneumatic tires the ride of the smaller-wheeled bicycle would be much rougher than that of the larger-wheeled variety. This, in turn, required gearing—effected in a variety of ways—to efficiently use pedal power. These bicycles were difficult to ride due to their high seat and poor weight distribution. Dunlop’s pneumatic tire was added to the bicycle in 1888. The dwarf ordinary addressed some of these faults by reducing the front wheel diameter and setting the seat further back. But worst part was putting the doll seat. Only negative thing was carriage for baby was not able to screw in all the way and a little wobbly. It has a booklet of various models in… It has a booklet of various models in which you have to figure out which instructions are yours. Seat: decorated and padded seat with quick-release for easy adjustment. Wheels: training wheels for added stability. As some generator or dynamo -driven lamps only operate while moving, rear reflectors are frequently also mandatory. Plus you need about 6 different tools to put together. Self-service and assisted-service maintenance and repair may be available.

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